Gomes replaced injured captain Andres Iniesta nine minutes before half-time of the clash at Camp Nou, which was settled by a brilliant Lionel Messi free-kick.
The 24-year-old made little impact on an otherwise strong Barca performance and he was jeered by a small number of fans, with one such incident apparently prompting an angry reaction from head coach Ernesto Valverde.
The Portugal international later took to Instagram to credit supporters for helping the LaLiga leaders to stretch their advantage at the top to eight points and extend their unbeaten run to 27 league matches.
“Thank you cules. Your support makes us invincible! Step by step we get closer to what we want,” he wrote.
Gomes has struggled for form and regular football since his 2016 transfer from Valencia for a fee that could reach €55million.
Valverde insisted after Sunday’s game that he also “sensed applause” for Gomes from the crowd and urged the player to win over his doubters.
“The fans have to be conquered,” he said. “The player has to get them on his side.
“I like it when they applaud players if things go wrong, because it strengthens them, but you have to face it and fight to change these things.”