Nathan White suffered a concussion injury in March and has been advised against continuing his career.
The 35-year-old made 13 appearances for his country having only made his debut in January 2015, while he also represented Waikato and Leinster in club competition.
He said in a statement: “While it’s disappointing to finish up this way and not on my own terms, I feel that I can look back at my rugby career with a lot of pride.
“I am retiring at 35 years of age and with so many great memories from my time playing in both New Zealand and Ireland.
“I’m not sure what exactly the future holds, but I know I am really excited about it. I’ve loved my time as a player but feel I am ready to move on now and challenge myself in other ways.”